This branch of neuroscience focuses on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and function of the nervous system. It investigates how individual neurons and their various components such as synapses, receptors and ion channels contribute to the overall functioning of the brain and the nervous system. 

Researchers study the intricate processes that occur within neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals, the release and uptake of neurotransmitters, and the regulation of gene expression. They also investigate how neurons form connections with each other, enabling the complex networks that underlie information processing and communication in the brain.