Human Neuroscience
Human Neuroscience

Professor Emeritus of Psychology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute

Ph.D., University of Cambridge, 1961

Research: Functions of the cerebral cortex in behavior.

cggross@princeton.edu
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609-258-4430
280 Neuroscience


Research Focus

My laboratory is interested in the role of various brain structures in visual perception and visual learning. Much of our research involves monkeys.

Inferior temporal cortex. We have been studying how this area codes and stores information about objects. One approach involves recording the activity of single inferior temporal neurons as a function of the visual stimulus and the behavioral task, such as short term memory. A second is analyzing the anatomical organization of inferior temporal cortex and its connections in both infants and adults. A third approach is studying the behavioral effects of removal of inferior temporal cortex.

Blindsight and Development. After lesions of striate cortex there is considerable residual visual function. Since these functions are not conscious, this residual vision has been called "blindsight". We have been studying this phenomenon with emphasis on comparing the effects of striate lesions made in infant and adult monkeys. Recent experiments concern stimulus localization and movement discrimination in animals with striate lesions, properties of extra-striate cortex neurons in the long-term absence of striate cortex and anatomical changes after striate cortex lesions made in infancy and adulthood.

The Representation of Space in the Brain. How is space coded in the brain so that we know where things are, even as we move our eyes, head and bodies about? We are studying the roles of neurons in a system of areas, including the putamen, premotor cortex and parietal cortex, which represent near extra-personal space. We have discovered neurons that that have visual fields that are organized in body-part coordinates rather than retinal ones and we believe they play a role in visuomotor control.

Adult Neurogenesis. I have been collaborating with Professor Elizabeth Gould on adult-generated neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of monkeys.

History of Neuroscience. I also write on the history of neuroscience, and its social context.


Selected Publications

  • Brain Vision and Memory: Tales in the History of Neuroscience, 1998: MIT Press
  • Gross, C.G., Bender, D.B. and Rocha-Miranda, C.E.. Visual receptive fields of neurons in inferotemporal cortex of the monkey. Science, 1969, 166: 1303-1306.
  • Gross, C.G. Visual functions of inferotemporal cortex. In: R. Jung (Ed.), Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII, Part 3B. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1973, 451-482.
  • Gross, C.G. and Mishkin, M. The neural basis of stimulus equivalence across retinal translation. In: S. Harnad, R. Doty, J. Jaynes, L. Goldstein, and G. Krauthamer (Eds.), Lateralization in the Nervous System. New York: Academic Press, 1977, pp. 109-122.
  • Gross, C.G., Bender, D.B.,and Gerstein, G.L. Activity of inferior temporal neurons in behaving monkeys. Neuropsychol., 1979, 17: 215-229.
  • Gross, C.G. and Desimone, R.. Properties of inferior temporal neurons in the macaque. Adv. Physiol. Sci., 1981, 17: 287-289.
  • Bruce, C., Desimone, R., and Gross, C.G. Visual properties of neurons in a polysensory area in superior temporal sulcus of the macaque. J. Neurophysiol., 1981, 46: 369-384.
  • Gattass, R. and Gross, C.G. Visual topography of striate projectionzone (MT) in posterior superior temporal sulcus of the macaque. J. Neurophysiol., 1981, 46: 621-638.
  • Gross, C.G., Bruce, C.J., Desimone, R., J. Fleming and Gattass, R. Cortical visual areas of the temporal lobe: three areas in the macaque. In: C.N. Woolsey (Ed.), Cortical Sensory Organization, Vol. 2, Multiple Visual Areas. New York: Humana Press, 1981, pp. 187-216.
  • Desimone, R., Albright, T.D., Gross, C.G., and C. Bruce. Stimulus selective properties of inferior temporal neurons in the macaque. J. Neurosci., 1984, 4: 2051-2062.
  • Gross, C.G., Desimone, R., Albright, T.D., and E.L. Schwartz. Inferior temporal cortex and pattern recognition. In: C. Chagas, R. Gattass, and C.G. Gross (Eds.), Pattern Recognition Mechanisms. Vatican City: Pontifica Academia Scientiarum, 1985, and Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1985, pp. 179-201.
  • Colombo, M., D'Amato, M.R., Rodman, H.R., and Gross, C.G. Auditory association cortex lesions impair auditory short-term memory in monkeys. Science, 1990, 247: 336-338.
  • Gross, C.G. Contributions of striate cortex and the superior colliculus to visual function in Area MT, the superior temporal polysensory area and the inferior temporal cortex. Neuropsychol., 1991, 29: 497-515.
  • Miller, E.K., P.M. Gochin, and C.G Gross. A habituation-like decrease in the responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex of the macaque. Vis. Neurosci., 1991, 7: 357-362.
  • Gross, C.G., and Rodman, H.R. Inferior temporal cortex: Neuronal properties and connections in adult and infant macaques. In: R. Lent (Ed.), The Visual System from Genesis to Maturity, 1992, Boston: Birkhauser.
  • Gross, C.G. The hippocampus minor and man's place in nature. Hippocampus, 1993, 3: 403-415.
  • Graziano, M.S.A., Yap, G.S., and Gross, C.G. Coding of visual space by premotor neurons. Science, 1994, 266: 1054-1057.
  • Moore, T., Rodman, H.R., Repp, A.B., Gross, C.G., and Mezrich, R.S. Greater residual vision in monkeys after striate cortex damage in infancy. J. Neurophysiol., 1996, 76: 3928-3933.
  • Graziano, M.S.A., Hu, X., and Gross, C.G. Visuo-spatial properties of ventral premotor cortex. J. Neurophysiol., 1997, 77: 2268-2292.
  • Graziano, M.S.A., and Gross, C.G. Vision, movement, and the monkey brain. In: A. Mikami, (Ed.), The Association Cortex-Structure and Functionn. Amsterdam: Overseas Publishers Association, 1997, pp. 219-232.
  • Moore, T., Rodman, H.R., and Gross, C.G. Man, monkey and blindsight. The Neuroscientist, 1998, 4:227-230.
  • Gross, C.G. Rembrandt’s “The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deijman. Trends. Neurosci., 1998, 21:237-240.
  • Colombo, M., Fernandez, T., Nakamura, K. and Gross, C.G. Functional differentiation along the anterior-posterior axis of the hippocampus in monkeys. J. Neurophysiol., 1998, 80:1002-1005.
  • Graziano, M.S.A., Reiss, L.A.J., and Gross, C.G. A neuronal representation of the location of nearby sounds, Nature, 1999, 397:428-430.
  • Gould, E., Reeves, A., Graziano, M.S., and Gross, C.G. Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates. Science, 1999, 286: 548-552.
  • Gross, C.G. Neurogenesis in the adult brain: death of a dogma. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 2000, 1:67-73.
  • Gould E., Vail, N., Wagers, M., & Gross, C.G. Adult-generated hippocampal and neocortical neurons in macaques have a transient existence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2001, 98:10910-10917.
  • Gould, E., and Gross, C.G. Neurogenesis in Adult Mammals: Some Progress and Problems. J. Neurosci., 2002, 22:619-23.